5G network is a revolutionary development that is being envisaged in the mobile communication and networks development and this could lead to potential development in the global developments in terms of information and communication technologies. Despite the fact that there is no official consideration or the finite guidelines on the project, there are many researches and studies that could reflect on how the 5G networks could be resourceful and the network communication methods that could be effective in providing good 5G network solutions. In this research paper, the focus and emphasis has been on how effectively the ultra densified small cells can be effectively used in 5G networks, and based on the research papers and the potential solutions that has been defined, few of the effective solutions that has been defined in the system has been considered for the review and the inputs from the solutions has been discussed and the conclusions has been provided in this research study report.
Information and Communication Technologies have become an integral part of rapidly changing technological trends that influence the global economic scenario. Over a period of time, the communication technologies have emerged in a way, where it has transformed the lives of many individuals and the organizational dynamics.
Such kind of evolutionary developments impacts the process of relying upon the communication network, and one of the disruptive technologies that have changed the dynamics of the industry is mobile communication network. Since last two decades, the kind of revolutionary developments that have come up has a significant impact on the way the communication has taken place. The kind of computation and network systems development like high end systems, ecommerce trends which has changed the dynamics of the industry has significant impact and it has been complemented and supported effectively by the emergence of trends like Mobile communication networks like 2G, 3G and the furtherance which are nomenclature based on the generation level of the technological emergence. (Cicconett)
With the advent growth of mobile communication systems and the revolution of smartphones have transformed the way, people depend on the mobiles not only for voice communication, but also to access the internet, and also advanced computing applications from the mobiles. The kind of paradigm shift that the internet networking systems have modeled for the revolutionary trends is such that, today telecom companies have more focus on the data charges and the revenues based on data volume utilization rather than focusing on the voice calls based revenues. This factor signifies the impact of how effectively, the change in the network scenario is taking place and how it impacts the overall scenario and the global developments. (Hossain, 2013)
In this research report the focus and emphasis is on the emerging trends of 5G network systems which is considered to be the latest generation trends that could impact the organizational and the individual’s usage of the mobile based internet communication systems. 5G is considered to be one of the high end technological revolutions that are considered to be a makeshift task that could impact the organizations. Despite the fact that 5G network has been discussed as a revolutionary trend, officially the guidelines or an official definition of 5G network has not been framed and approved by the International Telecom Union. (Kachhavay & Ajay P.Thakare, 2014)
The present scenario supports any kind of technological advancements in the mobile internet communications has been considered only as extended developments in the 4G network system and in common terms it can be stated and classified that the kind of technological advancements in the mobile internet is influenced in a significant manner.
As per the present level of inputs available on various kinds of networks and the kind of approach on 5G network medium has only emphasized the facts that still there is no kind of official scope defined for 5G terminologies and more of it is based upon the inputs from the systems that has been provided based on the expectations, as to what could be the better features in 5G network when compared to the existing levels of 4G network based on the scope defined and approved by the International Telecom Union. (F. Gutierrez & et.al, 2009)
The key purpose behind the framework of 5G network are to counter the current level of issues pertaining to the challenges envisaged by the mobile providers and the ones that could aggravate over a period of time when the mobile traffic density increases. Few of the key challenges which are envisaged by the companies are about the congestion which they are encountering while the users gather at a concert, huge gatherings or the road traffic density scenarios, where the quality of data transaction and call volumes are getting poor. Also there is advent need for the organization to be suitable to counter any other kind of challenges which may be encountered by the organization. (Hossain, 2013)
The focus on 5G, according to some experts is to ensure that everything possibly that could be connected to a mobile network shall be connected to it, ranging from appliances to traffic lights to medical equipment and the power supply systems, and the integration of such connections to the mobile networks is one of the key challenges of 5G networks. (J.Murdock. & T.Rappaport, 2014)
In retro analysis of the trends and the kind of technological developments in terms of mobile communication and the generation networks, the emphasis and focus on 5G networks is to ensure that it has better features, techniques and solidarity for connectivity to multiple interfaces, and seemingly improved standards compared to 4G networks. However, the crux is that over a period of time, when the technology of 5G is in to implementation, the kind of technical infrastructure management for facilitating such a kind of bandwidth turns to be a challenge. For instance, though the 4G network has been launched initially in a European country, still due to many challenging factors, the penetration of 5G network services has not been much effective when compared to the US and Asian countries. Now the European Union is taking initiatives to build the infrastructure required for such a kind of penetration. (Kachhavay & Ajay P.Thakare, 2014)
There are many such critical challenges which are envisaged by the 5G network development, which need some kind of clarity and a clear perspective on the frame work for enabling better technological standards, improved quality of bandwidth and connectivity. However the challenge is amidst of the existing scenario is to ensure that we have smooth operational flow of the aspects of developing 5G networks that could change, impact and improve the existing levels of communication systems and process. (Kachhavay & Ajay P.Thakare, 2014)
In a precise outlook of the 5G network scenario, it can be stated that based on the inputs from the industry, research inputs and the opinions of the experts, having an next generation mobile network revolution is significant to the developments which are envisaged. However, unless the scope factor is clear and evident for the organizations, it is imperative that having any kind of network system management could be challenging issue for the organization. (Churi, Sudhish T Surendran, Shreyas Ajay Tigdi, & Sanket Yewale, 2012)
The technical backdrops like the cell allocation, spectrum management and the cell allocation in the density areas are the key challenges that are envisaged with the 5G network development and installation, which is very essential part of the 5G network developments. In the given context scenario, it is very essential that the companies rely upon the 4G network to provide services and in the following sections of this report the focus is upon understanding the 4G network cell allocation and the Lte network in the 4G allocation. (Wang, et al., 2014)
The mobile phones systems have evolved rapidly and in the last decade of time, the kind of paradigm shift that has taken place, speaks volume about the capability, scope and the opportunity that exist for the mobile communication technologies. When initially, the monochrome device that has a minuscule screen and with limited processing power has been in use, the transformation has led ways to the high end solutions where today smartphones are competing with its processing speed comparable to high configuration laptops. (Chin, Zhong Fan, & Russell Haines)
In addition to such revolution, the need of expanding cache with the bandwidth hungry applications that are being developed have only implicated higher data rates, which could decide the course of action for the mobile service providers. Mobile data traffic has been forecasted to grow in multiple folds in the coming years, and is pressing the need for rapid developments in the implementation of 4G networks. (Chin, Zhong Fan, & Russell Haines)
4G network has been the current trend of latest generation of the mobile networks that is available for implementation and the fact of the matter is that, despite the growth of such potential mobile communication technologies in place, hardly there are very few countries where the potential techniques of 4G has been put to use and implemented to the fullest extent possible. There are many countries which are having inadequate infrastructure to utilize the full potential of the existing solution. (Churi, Sudhish T Surendran, Shreyas Ajay Tigdi, & Sanket Yewale, 2012)
There are various technical and functional factors that are associated with the 4G network system that form the basis for the communication network. In this research paper the focus is upon providing the inputs related to the 4G network system that has to be considered for the study.
3GPP implies the heterogeneous networks which can be considered as concurrent operation of different classes of base stations, whereas in the case of 5G it is expected to be a mixture of different radio access technologies as well. The features like Wireless Local Areas Network (WLAN) technologies offer seamless handovers for the traffic in the cellular infrastructure, and also between device to device communications. Unlike the traditional cellular networks, in this kind of system, the shift load away from the treasured licensed brands make a significant difference. The kind of spectrum management turns out to be a critical success factor for the telecom service providers, as in the earlier cases, the kind of bandwidth management turns out to be very effective. (Cicconett)
Similarly, in the earlier scenarios when the radio networks are used for transmissions, they concurrently provided higher through to the users. This has been effective towards the usage of 3GPP Access Network Discovery and Selection Function (ANDSF), however as per the inputs provided in the research report by the authors it is evident from “However, in situations where there is a high concentration of user terminals, offloading of data to WLANs may result in poor throughput, as WLANs are not well equipped to handle a large number of users. This problem is recognized by the IEEE 802.11 Working Group, which has initiated a study group on High Efficiency WLANs (HEW) to tackle situations where there is a high density of access points and/or a high density of user terminals”, that there is advent need for development in terms of cellular radio network management. (Chin, Zhong Fan, & Russell Haines)
One of the pioneer technologies that are accessed by cellular service providers in terms of effective service provider is Long-Term Evolution (LTE), which supports both modes like FDD (Frequency Division Duplex) and Time Division Duplex (TDD) by the level of sub frame structure of size 1ms. The kind of sub frame length facilitates the latency to be minimized, which was depicting a good user experience. (IWPC, 2014)
However in the current scenario Rel-11 kind of Long Term Evolution supports features such as scalable deployment bandwidth frequency ranging from 1.4 MHz to 20 MHz, and the aggregation in the carrier could be up to 100 MHz, the kind of heterogeneous network, the high level of transmit and the receive antennas, and the kind of spatial multiplexing which could prove effective for the organization towards beam forming and the frequency selection scheduling which could reflect on the inter-cell conference coordination that could impact the multi-point transmission and the reception, along with single frequency network. (Hossain, 2013)
In Rel-12, there are many additional features that could be considered for annexation in to D2D and M2M communication, the small cell enhancements which includes the dual connectivity, enhancements in terms of MIMO and the combination for TDD- FDD operations and the centralized RAN and the enhanced approach for Long Term Evolution based Wi-Fi Coordination.
The maximum LTE downlink and the Uplink data rates for Rel-11 are reflected in the table below and this data rates are pertaining to FDD. When the TDD rates for corresponding rates are required, adequate scaling based on DL: UL configuration have to be taken in to consideration. It is feasible that without carrier aggregation, peak data rate of 600 Mbps have to be achieved by the downlink, whereas the carrier aggregation of 5 downlink 20 MHz carriers and peak downlink data rate of 3 Gbps can be achieved in LTE (J.Murdock. & T.Rappaport, 2014)
The LTE System architecture was designed with the basis of internet protocol to efficiently support the transmission which is packet based data protocols. The following figure represents the LTE architecture
In the LTE system architecture, the service provisioning which is classified in to two parts as Evolved Packet Core (EPC) which is managed to core network functionalities and the E-UTRAN (Evolved Universal Terrestrial Radio Access Network ) Mobility management, security and the policy management is the elementary responsibilities of the core networks. When we look at the structure of the core network it comprises of Mobility Management Entity (MME), the Serving Gateway (S-GW) and also the packet data network Gateway (P-GW). The E-UTRAN which is usually comprised of eNBs, can be considered as responsible for the management of radio access and provides the control to the users and support the User Equipment’s (UEs). Few of the key attributes for these factors could be to handover, the resource control and the service establishments. (T.S Rappaport & et.al, 2013)
Technically, there are various developments that have come up in the scenario of 4G network development, and there are rapid levels of improvements that are being envisaged for the kind of quality process and the systems implementation for enabling a better 4G network. In the mean terms, the evolution of the 5G network conceptualization has changed the dynamics of networking. There are many factors like the effects of network systems and its implementation that could impact the growth of 5G network scenarios. (Jha, 2004)
In the following sections of this work we shall look in to key aspects that could provide the inputs on what are the various methodologies and techniques of networking system that could help in providing quality mobile internet communication systems that could help in revolutionizing the digital spectrum.
Research methodology has a predominant role in the research study and unless the research study is taken with due understanding and ideas that could provide inputs to the research which can provide insights that could help us understand the outputs related to the study.
In this current research study, the focus is upon understanding how ultra densified smalls cells can be utilized in the 5G networks which could help in better understanding of the scenario and based on the inputs can provide outlook to the objectives of the study. In the proposed research, the focus is upon emphasizing the facets of the 5G networks, how the existing 4G network is working, the scope for improvement or using the existing standards and methods towards developing better 5G network infrastructure that could reap benefits to the organization. (Tudzarov & Toni Janevski, 2011)
The research methodology that has been adapted in this research is based on both qualitative and the research method that has been taken in to consideration. Based on the literature review that has been considered in the study, and the inputs from the study, the facts pertaining to the existing models, and the previous tests that has been considered in the study has been taken in to consideration.
Apart from the inputs that has been collected from the previous researches, also certain kind of inputs and the proposal that has been provided in the IEEE journals, related to 5G network has been taken in to consideration for the study and based on the proposed inputs, a lab testing of the proposed techniques and standards which can be basis for the 5G network has been taken in to consideration and based on the inputs from the study, the simulation of the methods has been taken in to consideration and the simulation that would be adapted for the testing of the proposed models could be the MATLAB testing. (Churi, Sudhish T Surendran, Shreyas Ajay Tigdi, & Sanket Yewale, 2012)
As there could be many proposed models which could be very successful, the success factors for the testing could be on the quality of the testing standards that has been taken in to consideration and many other critical factors that could help in building the effective techniques and tools that shall provide effective inputs towards developing the standards. (F. Gutierrez & et.al, 2009)
In the IEEE journals, there were numerous research papers that has been proposed which includes some of the following methods and studies that could be possible solutions to the de-congestion of 5G networks and based on the inputs from the simulation studies that will be carried out in the tests, it will give us an insight whether the proposed solutions are being result oriented and effective based as per the proposed specifications in the study. (Churi, Sudhish T Surendran, Shreyas Ajay Tigdi, & Sanket Yewale, 2012)
Few of the methods and the techniques that has been considered for the study has been detailed below in this report, which will give overview of the techniques and methods that has been taken in to consideration for the study, and one of the proposed research techniques that will be adapted for the simulation tests could be on the basis of the radically more spectrum and the cell densification. As per the research study, the inputs provided for the analysis is as follows.
Under a scenario where radically more spectrum is needed and the densification of cells continues, architecture of mm‐wave small cells is envisioned. Figure shows options for a forward looking system architecture where a mm‐wave base station (mB) supports both access and backhaul connections. The mB integrates other small cell access technologies such as LTE or 802.11. The left side of the diagram is hotspot deployment, while the right side shows a cellular architecture. (J.Murdock. & T.Rappaport, 2014)
The other proposed inputs which has been taken in to consideration is on the Current mm‐wave Standards for Future Cellular Systems which is also provided as one of the proposed techniques that could be resourceful to the study and testing methods which could provide insights on how effectively this systems could be resourceful for 5G network development.
“802.11ad is one of the latest amendments from the popular 802.11 WiFi technologies. It is a 60GHz PHY/MAC specification driven primarily by WiGig, now absorbed in WFA. Other 60 GHz standards exist, but 802.11ad is probably the most capable of them. Table 9‐1 gives a list 60 GHz standards. (J.Murdock. & T.Rappaport, 2014)
The use cases collected by the 802.11ad community can be found in IEEE 802.11 ‐07/2988r3 and updated in IEEE 802.11 ‐09/0583r0.. The use cases are primarily for short range links with limited support for mobility. There are several use cases that call for longer distance links (e.g., the backhaul cases), but use cases used to agree on performance were decidedly for short range applications. (IWPC, 2014)
Receiver performance and simulation assumptions (IEEE 802.11‐10/0431r3) agreed upon by 120 members, measured performance in only short range indoor channels corresponding to an enterprise conference room and home living room. The detailed channel models are described in IEEE 802.11‐09/0334r8. It seems clear that participating companies intend to target short range indoor application despite the list of use cases. (IWPC, 2014)
However, end‐to‐end latency could limit the number of allowed hops.
The one‐hop relaying function included in the 802.11ad standard with support for amplify‐and forward/full‐duplex as well as decode‐and‐forward/half‐duplex modes, falls short as a solution for a multi‐hop mesh described above. This is because the standard only supports relaying for two nodes that belong to the same cell to talk to each other via a third node, bypassing the access point (AP).Therefore, this is not truly a range‐extension solution, which requires chaining together of multiple such single hops over large distances.” (IWPC, 2014)
On the basis of such inputs, the spectrum and how the ultra densified small cells can be effective towards 5G network management shall be tested in this research study based on the factors briefed in the study.
One of the latest amendments to the very well-known 802.11 WiFi technologies is the 802.11ad which is a 60GHZ PHYD/MAC design that is driven primarily by WiGig which gets adapted in WFA. Despite the fact that there are more number of 60 GHz standards prevail, 802.11ad is considered to be one of the most effective among them. According to the inputs from IEE 802.11-07/2988r3 and updated in IEEE 802.11 ‐09/0583r0, the effective use case of 802.11.ad is evident for the implementation effectiveness, which is primarily for short links that could only support the mobility with in short ranges. There are various use cases that like back haul technologies that could be used for long range links, but the use cases that are considered for review could be described based on the short range applications. (Zhao & et.al, 2013)
As per the inputs from the research inputs agreed upon by 120 members, about the receiver performance and the assumptions of simulation (IEEE 802.11‐10/0431r3), measured performance in only short range channels in indoor of an enterprise conference or a living room. A detailed study inputs related to IEEE 802.11‐ 09/0334r8. It is evident from the system that many of the participating companies prefer to target shot range indoor application despite the list of use cases. (S.Sandhu & T.S.Rappaport, , 1994)
The design specifications of 802.11ad recommend the directional antennas, the crux is that in both transmit and receiver sides, the node discovery mechanism shall not explore the high antenna system, and one of the process during the discovery is that, one antenna is configured with a so-called quasi-omni mode which is treated as the antenna array with widest beam that is possible. For the purpose of small cell deployment, when such high antennas are put to use, the long range discovery could be curtailed and the effect of it could be at large. (T.S.Rappaport & et.al, 2012)
The other intrinsic reason is that the nature of transmissions and the limited diffraction, in the adaption of mm-wave communication for the technologies like backhaul, it targets mostly LOS paths. And the other reason is that there could be some kind of limited penetration frequencies which could be due to the obstructions that are highly likely. To ensure that the problem of link blockage problem, the redundant paths to the destination with the mesh architecture could offer a promising solution. The other challenge is replacing the long link with hops which are shorter could provide the leverage of naturally minimizing the problems of path loss which are discussed in the long range systems as discussed above. Still the fact of concern is that end-to-end latency could limit the number of hops that could be allowed. (Cicconett)
The relaying function one-hop which is included in the 802.11ad standards which usually supports both amplify and forward, also the full-duplex and the considered forward/half-duplex modes, which could fall short as a solution for multi-hop mesh discussed above. This could be considered due to the kind of relaying for two nodes that are from the same cell to correspond with each other via a third node, which is bypassing the access point. Hence it can be considered that there is any kind of range-extension solution that requires linking together the multiple single hops in terms of larger distances. (Jha, 2004)
It is evident from the inputs that 802.11ad standard could be mainly resourceful for high-bandwidth application requirements like the High-definition videos and bulk sized applications like animated games etc. However the simulations reflect that 5G access networks which is inclined to support the aggregate sessions together representing high data rate but with relatively smaller bandwidth rate per session, could be like delay sensitive which could impact the streaming of videos etc. as the lowest 802.11ad data rate corresponds to so much of Mbps, a large protocol overhead shall be involved in serving the requirements of the users with minimal through put of few Mbps. Even in the case of TCP sessions, when there is slow-start and in the case of TCP feedback in the reverse direction. When the preamble and header durations become non-trivial in comparison to the payload, it makes no impact on the organization. The new air interface shall be preferably supporting the data transfer of small packets more efficiently than utilizing the full system bandwidth with the access. (Churi, Sudhish T Surendran, Shreyas Ajay Tigdi, & Sanket Yewale, 2012)
3.5 5G mm‐wave Access Technology
802.11ad standards are designed for high bandwidth applications that involve high-definition videos, and the mm-wave technology if deployed to 5G Networks could support greater than 10 Gbps of peak rate and it could reflect to more than 100 Mbps of cell edge that could be due to high level of data rate applications with 1ms of latency. The new air interface needs to be designed which could fit the propagation conditions at mm-wave bands and the ones which can satisfy the 5G requirements. (IWPC, 2014)
The key components for 5G mm-wave access technology could be choosing a right kind of link wave form selection which could be in the form of Cyclic Prefixed Single Carrier (CP-SC) and many of the variants or multi-carrier solutions like OFDM and SC-OFDM or the MC-CDMA. The entire system works on the Peak to Average Power Ratio (PAPR) performance. It is also an impacting factor that single-carrier based air interface design which could lack the ability of schedule resources which are dynamically heading towards frequency domain and could be less flexible in terms of resource channelization . (IWPC, 2014)
In lieu of such context, it is imperative that having kind of multiple carrier based frequency could be a better bet in terms of providing appropriate solutions that could envisage optimum results for the process of providing effective 5G network systems.
Despite the fact that there are many more methods that has been suggested for the project, it is evident from the scenario that the above mentioned techniques which are having better process and foundation for providing seamless connectivity and bandwidth management to the 5G network systems development. (F. Gutierrez & et.al, 2009)
Risk is an integral factor for any study and unless the risks are identified and mitigated effectively, the purpose and the objective of the study might not be effectively studied. In the case of our current project study it is very essential that the project the potential risk factors in the study have to be given significant importance.
One of the potential risks for this research study is the analysis of potential threats pertaining to the case. Based on the inputs from the previous research papers, it is evident that there are many kinds of techniques and systems that are proposed as a solution. But in the reflective scenario, unless the simulation of the proposed models are conducted, it could be very challenging to identify which kind of systems could be impactful and how the models that has been given as solution could be working effectively to the organization. (S.Sandhu & T.S.Rappaport, , 1994)
The potential risk factor is about choosing the methods for review. When there are multiple levels of solutions that have been proposed, in the Ultra densified small cells in 5G networks, identifying potential solution and having a simulation for the solution is the major crux factor. Also ensuring that the simulation is carried out effectively without any deviations from the proposed solutions is also one of the key risks that the project study encounters. (Wang, et al., 2014)
If the simulation systems are not functioning appropriately, then the entire development could be at stake and there could be various aspects which might not provide us the right readings that could help us in evaluating and understanding the potentiality of the proposed and chosen solution for the study. Also the time factor and the technical infrastructure are also potential issues for the study and based on the factors that could provide inputs for the studies, having right kind of solutions on which the simulation studies can be carried out is one the risk factors. (Churi, Sudhish T Surendran, Shreyas Ajay Tigdi, & Sanket Yewale, 2012)
In a precise outlook of the risk factors, one of the intrinsic issues with the project is that the conceptualization of 5G network has not been officially defined, and the stage of 5G network scenario is still in conceptualization phase which reflects the expectations and presumptions about the exact features of the 5G scenario, and even the solutions which are proposed is based on the expectations of the 5G services, and if there is deviation or high set expectation from the 5G network, then the proposed solutions and the evaluation of the solution might fall short of the estimations for 5G network. (F. Gutierrez & et.al, 2009)
Every kind of technical research studies has some kind of infrastructure requirements both hardware and the software solutions, and in the current scenario of the research too, there is advent need for an effective factors that could help in reflecting the objective of the study in an structure manner and there are many simulation tools and systems that are put to use for the study. (Chin, Zhong Fan, & Russell Haines)
One of the major safety concerns in the process is that, if the given systems are not being appropriate or the environment for the simulations are not being supportive, it could damage the hardware components of the simulation kit and it could be significant cost overrun for the project study. The other way if the process of the study is not followed with adequate safety standards, it could disturb the entire protocol or the network system that is used for the study and based on even the software systems of the simulation kit could be corrupted or damaged. (S.Sandhu & T.S.Rappaport, , 1994)
Hence adequate precaution is required in terms of handling the systems and the work environment and there should be clear understanding and adequate knowledge about the simulation systems that are used for the research study which is one of the predominant safety concerns that has to be addressed in the project. (Wang, et al., 2014)
The disruptive technological advancements that has been taking place in the mobile communications network has been phenomenal and the kind of mobile technology revolution that has been taking place, in terms of providing seamless connectivity of internet, is enabling phenomenal course of developments in the information and communication technologies. In the emergence of mobile network generations, currently in many countries 4G generation of mobile communications is being reverent, however, still there are many countries where the effective 4G network implementation is being in much less proportion even in emerging markets of mobile communications. Amidst of such scenario, the 5G network has been very imperative and much of framework is being considered on the basis of the expectations as to what should 5G network provide as a service and yet the International Telecommunications Union haven’t provided any definitive guidelines as to define the 5G network. (IWPC, 2014)
In this research paper, the focus is on understanding how effectively the Ultra densified small cells in 5G networks could be resourceful in examining the process, and based on the inputs from the literature review and the inputs from the studies, it could be assimilated that there is adequate systems and practices that could be intrinsic towards providing the 5G network solution through ultra densified small cells, and the technologies like mm-wave access technologies could be a potential solution that could be resourceful in handling the small cells which could enable a better seaming connectivity and provide the service of latest generation of mobile communications network.
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