Water Pollution has become a challenging issue for many regions across the globe. Industrial waste has been identified as one of the potential sources of contamination, as the industrial wastes which are released are heading towards water sources and the water is being contaminated at various levels like single source contamination and the non-source contamination. Also the challenge is that the water contamination is taking place both at the surface levels and also the underground levels. Industrial waste has so many chemicals and heavy metals in its waste could be potential harm to the water sources and consumption of such contaminated water could lead to harmful diseases and also could lead to death of the public. Also every year thousands of aqua living creatures like fish and aqua birds are dying due to the water contamination from heavy metals like mercury, lead, arsenic and other such metals, and the high concentration toxic levels of those metals. In this research study the focus is on the heavy metals like mercury and lead, the effects of contamination and the remedies that are currently used for water treatment. Solutions like AAM-PBR, Reverse Osmosis models which were prevalent solutions for the water treatment to reduce the effects of contamination are discussed in this research report.
Water is one of the predominant needs for the survival and is also one of the abundant resources available on the earth. Around two third of the earth is filled with water and despite that in many regions water is in scarcity in many regions. There are various reasons that could intensify the scarcity, one is the changing weather conditions, global warming, and short fall in the seasonal rains and there are various other factors that are contributing to the scarcity of the water in the many countries across the world. (Woodford., 2014)
Despite the fact that the world has abundant water resources, one of the key reasons why there is lack of drinking water is, due to the water pollution that has been a challenging issue in the recent past. There are many kinds of pollutants that are being released in the environment which is getting the water polluted and it making the water from nearby ponds, rivers and canals which are potential sources of drinking water in to the standards of non-consumption levels. (EPA)
Water is one of the essential requirements for the living for all living organisms and if the water which is consumed is getting polluted it could lead to many health complications and could endanger the healthy living. Tough we are aware of the kind of water scarcity and the increasing challenges of having adequate water resources due to the scarcity of rainfall, the ponds and rivers getting dried, still there are many regions where the potential measures are taken to curtail the water pollution and safeguard the drinking water resources. (Järup, 2003)
There are many kinds of water pollutants that are impacting the quality water sources. The pollution could happen at the surface water levels and the ground water levels and the pollution could happen from various aspects. If the pollution is taking place from single source then it is usually termed as point source pollution and in the other cases when the pollution takes place from the multiple sources it is considered as non-point source pollution.
Despite the fact that there are various kinds of water pollution activities that take place due to air pollution, environmental pollution, industrial pollution, and the ground water level pollution due to the geographical conditions, one of the predominant issue that is encountered today is the water pollution pertaining to industrial pollution.
Though the impacts of industrial pollution to the water resources has been identified and in various countries the measures have been taken to curtail the industrial pollution of the water, in many regions, it is evident that though there are effective norms and practices to curtail the industrial water pollution still there are some kind of industrial water pollution that is envisaged, and this kind of water pollutions could be significant harm to the environment. Categorically, when the main drinking water resources are getting polluted, where so many people and animals depend on the water pool areas, then it poses much more impact. (Govind & Madhuri S, 2014)
In this research paper, the focus and emphasis is on the water pollution from the industrial sources and various kinds of toxics and the other pollutants that are increasing the water pollution, the remedies and the measures that could help in reduction of the water pollution, and mitigate the risk. Also this research paper focus on various trends like the technical and functional measures that have to be adapted, currently existing solution to treat the water , disinfect and purify the water by removing all the toxic waste and the ongoing research trends pertaining toward managing the water pollution from industrial heavy metal toxics. (Dungca, Andrea Hevey, & Rachel Patenaude)
Industrial pollution is one of the major hazards for the water pollution that is prevailing across the regions, and the industrial pollution is being a primary reason for the water pollution as the surface water is being polluted by the industrial waste releases which are with high volume of chemicals, that are being released in to the nearby canals and other water sources.
There are various kinds of chemical substance contamination that takes places from multiple sources. One of the sources are the detergents which are relatively mild substances and the other end of highly toxic chemicals are polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), which were vividly used in the manufacturing of electronic circuit boards. When the research studies indicated the implications of PCBs chemicals, in many countries there were regulations that has been imposed on the usage of PCBs in the manufacturing, despite all that even in the present scenario there were still so many instances where the pollution due to PCBs has been envisaged as there are so many fishes and aqua birds are dying in the sea which are thousands of miles away, and such is the kind of toxic chemical pollution impact. (Brooks, Mozhgan Bahadory, Fernando Tovia, & Hossein Rostami, 2010)
The other major pollution in terms of industrial pollutants is the heavy metals, which are vividly present in the paints and the waste release from the paint manufacturing companies across the world. The kind of toxic substances that the paints carry in it, impact the water contamination to very high extent. The toxic pollution that comes from heavy metals like lead, mercury and cadmium is significant to the reasons of pollutions. Lead is one of the commonly used metals in the refining of fuels, which is restricted in many countries in the recent past. Still the usage of mercury and cadmium are being very high in the batteries, even in the recent past, there were many cases where a highly toxic chemical Tributyltin (TBT) was very much used in the paints that are used for painting the boats to protect it from the ravaging effects that the ships and boats encounter in the oceans. (Järup, 2003)
There were many academic and industrial researches that have been carried out for years to identify the potential water pollutants that could be posing threat to the water purity levels. In one of the serious levels of water contamination, due to heavy metal pollution in the oceans have taken place way back in 1938, due to discharge of significant quantum of mercury metal into Minamata Bay, that resulted in the contamination of water and the loss of fish stocks, and the impact has lasted for more than a decade of time. The impact was so high that due to the consumption of those fishes by the people, many got poisoned and lost their life or got disabled. (B & Muchie M, 2010)
Such is the intensity of the impact of chemical and toxic waste which is being one of the major causes for the water pollution. When the water pollution impact is so high at the ocean levels, the threat which is posed on the local water bodies like ponds, rivers and the canals which form the water resources for societal living is much higher.
In the following sections of this research report, the focus and emphasis is upon identifying how the heavy metals could turn to be a crisis for the water contamination, the intensity of the contamination and how to overcome such contamination, the purifications methods and practices that could be adapted for ensuring that the water is safe for consumption and the living of fishes and aqua living.
The toxics released in to the water are one of the primary reasons for the water contamination, and the toxics that are prevalent in the heavy metals cause a major concern for the water pollution. The heavy metals is not very much defined in an definitive terms, but in broader classification, it is stated that the metal with relatively high density and the ones that could be toxic at low quantity could be considered as heavy metals, and basically the Arsenic (As), Mercury (Hg), Cadmium (Cg), lead (pb), Thallium (TI) and Chromium (Cr) are few of the heavy metals which are often being part of the water contamination sources. It is very essential that a small proportion of these minerals are essentials for body to maintain good metabolism, however they are very toxic at higher concentrations and could only cause harm to the body rather than providing any good. (Govind & Madhuri S, 2014)
Lead (Pb) is one of the most detrimental intakes which easily gets mixed in the water and could prove to be very harmful to the human consumption. Despite the fact that there are many other such toxics that are contaminating, lead and mercury are those which are very dangerous kinds of toxics that could impact the human life and even the aqua life.
The kind of rapid revolutions and the emerging trends of urbanization are in a way creating the density and the dependency issues on water sources and in addition to that the sewage waste from the residential and the industrial locations getting directed towards some dumping sources or the drainage getting leaked to the drinking water source pools are turning out to be a major issues, as majority of the industries are releasing their manufacturing wastes and the process excretion of chemicals in to this sewages and in many circumstances it is directed toward sea or the major rivers which are flowing in the area. (Services)
This leads to significant levels of contamination and causes significant impact on the complete process of water purification process. Unless the water treatment facilities are deployed and the drinking water pool is not treated, in many of the cities in the world, the water pool for the consumption is not fit and suitable for straight consumption, and it needs so many layers of purification. In the development of so called urbanization, the key factor that is essential for the living is getting compromised and water being one of the essential needs for survival, if gets contaminated, could endanger the healthy living of millions of people.
The metal pollution that is taking place in the water pools are primarily due to the industrial activities like mining, in which predominantly the mining being one of the major reasons. There are many industrial processes that could be generating heavy metal pollution, but the quantum of heavy metal pollution that takes place from mining is very high.
One of the other industries that has scope for creating polluting impact is the electroplating industry, in which the large volumes of metal-rich effluents, which are naturally more polluting, are emitted, than the food processing industry or any other industries release. The lead-acid batteries which are being effective in another example of an industry that generate pollution and also the lead pollution which gets deposited on the surface water resources are the high reasons for the kind of chemicals and toxins mixing in the water and causing harm with consumption. (Wyk, 2012)
The other major contamination source for water is the non-point source of heavy metal pollution. This is caused from coal-fired power generation sectors, which usually contaminate the water resources because of the aerial deposition of the mercury that is being emitted from boiler flues. Despite the fact that there are technologies like wet scrubbing that are available to get rid much of this mercury, still the course of safe discarding the effluents have to be safely handled to prevent any further levels of pollution. Though there is objective of reducing the water pollution impact from mercury, the primary goal is about removing sulphur dioxide in the scrubbing process. The other factor is the quantum of ash that is being generated in the process that contains the heavy metals like uranium. (Wyk, 2012)
The advent need for minimizing the heavy metal pollution in the industrial organizations is way beyond the reasons for compliance. The impacts of heavy metal pollution is very high on the living organisms as the heavy metals have the tendency of bio-accumulative and being very toxic at high concentrations which could lead to neurological impacts and also in some cases could lead to cancer. The nature of interference with chemical processes in the way of poisoning chemical catalysts also drives significant impact on the biochemical process and the digestive system of the humans. This only emphasizes the fact that there are serious threats that are posed for the economic, environment and the social impacts that are associated with heavy metal pollution. (B & Muchie M, 2010)
In the environmental aspect, there are various factors that are interdependent and any kind of contamination in one level could lead to more complications in many facets and there is pressing need for safeguarding the environmental eco systems. In the conditions like water pollution, the effects and implications are directly on the living and could pose severe health hazards. Though there is various effluent plants through which the water purification can be done at various stages the fact of concern is that in majority of the causes, such treatments only mitigate the risk to certain extent and the impact can’t be completely nullified. (Järup, 2003)
Across the world in many countries this issue of water pollution due to heavy metals is pertinent and despite of having numerous policies and regulations that has been in force from the respective authorities and departments, still the quantum of water pollution has not come down, and in many countries, even the primary source of drinking waters from wells which are basically underground waters are also depicting the standards of water contamination. This only emphasizes the fact that despite of some standards, still there is implication of water pollution that could be potentially harmful for the consumption. In this research the core focus is on heavy metals like lead and mercury and consumption of them with the water pollution could result in significant health issues.
The major damage of health issue pertinent to consumption of water polluted due to mercury could result in following level of health damages. As per the inputs provided by water purifying systems suppliers, the impact of lead and mercury could lead to
- Behavioral problems
- High blood pressure, anemia
- Kidney damage
- Memory and learning difficulties
- Miscarriage, decreased sperm production
- Reduced IQ (Services)
- Blindness and deafness brain damage
- Digestive problems
- Kidney damage
- Lack of coordination
- Mental retardation (Services)
With such an intrinsic effects on the human system, it is very essential that we ensure to have non-contaminated water consumption, and if there are any sources of water contamination, curtail it to the best possible and ensure that we have appropriate systems in place to regulate any kind of contamination issues which could create more health hazards.
When there are certain heavy metals that are mixed in the water in small proportions, it is nutrient for health life, whereas the heavy metals like lead and mercury which are highly poisoning for health are to be avoided to great extents. These metals have the ability of getting dissolved in waste waters and when discharged in to surface waters, it can be very concentrated and could even come up in to the drinking water which we use for our regular intake. (B & Muchie M, 2010)
It is very much possible in that in certain occasions, it can seep in to ground water and contaminate the drinking water resources like the bore well water and the water supply reserves which could harm the consumers of that water. Despite the fact that there were numerous efforts that are taking place across the world which focus on the environmental sustainability and the provision of drinking water supply and the waste water discharge.
There are various technologies that have been put to use by for processing the water purification and the heavy metal remediation. In this section of report, the focus and approach is towards understanding the possible solutions that are in use at various locations and how effectively such process could help in mitigating the risk of water pollution due to heavy metals. Also it is evident from the current scenario that there is essential need for safe and economical multiple/integrated approach for heavy metal toxic removal from the water bodies, and ensures that the public health and the safe drinking water provisions are provided in every society. (B & Muchie M, 2010)
Though there are various levels of water pollution due to heavy metals and the related toxins, in this research report the focus and emphasis is only upon the lead and mercury based contamination and how effectively the regulatory authorities are implementing various solutions to mitigate the level of water contamination and provide secured water to the public. (EPA)
According to a research report published by Robert M. Brooks and his co-authors on the removal of lead from the water, he states that the process of removal of lead from water contamination can be classified in to many categories and few of the key methods are precipitation stabilization, ion exchange and the absorption. Though they are the traditional methods which can be used towards reducing the lead levels from the water, the adequate level of results that are expected out of the entire exercise may not be adequate to solve the issue of providing the remedial service of water treatment. (Brooks, Mozhgan Bahadory, Fernando Tovia, & Hossein Rostami, 2010)
In the research study the author proposes one more effective solution for removing the lead from water which is getting contaminated due to the high concentration toxics that are prevalent. The new system is proposed after understanding the problems and shortcomings from the existing system and based on the scope for effective utilization of alternate methods that could improve the intensity of remedy and provide much more effective quality of lead removal from the system.
The solution proposed by Robert M Brooks is Alkali Ash Material Permeable Reactive Barrier (AAM-PRB), which is considered to be one of the novel material made of fly ash alkali activating solution and also certain quantum of filler materials likes sand and the aggregates of coarse. By effectively implementing this system lead (Pb) can be removed from contaminated water. The materials of AAM-PRB are created with levels of high permeability as it is essential for reactive barrier material which shall be in the range of 10-2 cm/sec to 10-1 cm/sec. For initiating the cleaning process, the materials are developed using the various ash sources with permeability of 10-1 cm/sec were generated and is crushed to develop pellets. The effective implication of the various barriers is determined by the research study in terms of batches and column test. The studies which are conducted by the researchers reflect that lead ion level reduced from 1000 ppm to less than 2ppm with the use of 10 litres of solution, and the tests when performed by Atomic adsorption techniques reflect the positive impact and the potential remedy option using the AAM –PBR methods. (Brooks, Mozhgan Bahadory, Fernando Tovia, & Hossein Rostami, 2010)
Though the entire scenario is positive and the solution is potential the crux is again generating the materials which again could be impacting any other kind of environmental pollution. If this concern is effectively handled, then it could support in effective implementation of the technique towards removing lead ion from the water sources and providing good water to the society.
In the other research study that has been carried out by Arly Dungca and his co-researchers, they have researched the option of removal of lead from water with the effective usage of Ionic Liquid. In order to ensure that they have the adequate design and the requirements adhered for the project, the group has designed the bench scale experiments for obtaining the data and worked on full scale remediation system that could be resourceful in the field based on the data they could obtain. The type of experiment they have performed comprised “Solubility of 1-butyl-3-methylimadazolium hexafluorophosphate ([bmim][PF6]), Preparing a Lead Nitrate Stock Solution, Lead Removal as a Function of Lead vs. [bmim][PF6] Ratio, Lead Levels as a Function of pH Levels and Settling Rate of [bmim][PF6] in Water. The types of experiments were created to determine the potential removal rate of lead using [bmim][PF6]. The equipment’s and the procedures used were created based on research and took into consideration the scope as well as the limitations of the project” (Dungca, Andrea Hevey, & Rachel Patenaude)
From the results and the output of the experiments, the results were used as the basis for evaluating the scope and the design for full fledge implementation and the research team has taken the design and the system to real time implementation and has found significant results in terms of removing the lead from the contaminate water and the results have been encouraging.
In both the proposed solutions, the usage of other external items towards removal of potential harmful toxins in terms of lead has been successfully tried and tested under lab conditions and also towards the other scenario like real time analysis that has indicated positive improvements in reducing the levels of lead oriented toxic contamination in the waters.
However the challenge for the authorities in implementing the proposed methods towards large scale water resources shall be a challenging task as the materials required in terms of Iconic Liquids or even in the case of AAM-PBR method is very high. Now there is advent need for analysing the scope for producing such materials in large scales or there should be an extend research study that could analyse the scope for reducing the quantum of materials that are required towards deploying the proposed techniques towards successful implementation and yielding the results of reducing the lead content levels in the water contamination. (Brooks, Mozhgan Bahadory, Fernando Tovia, & Hossein Rostami, 2010)
Thus by enabling such water treatment methods there could be scope for improvement in providing the quality water. However the other intrinsic issues is that in the case scenario where the of lead based contamination takes place in the ground water levels due to the natural resources and the mineral sources in the ground at that geographical locations, may be this kind of proposed techniques might not be yielding effective results in micro level purification process, like treating the water for removing contamination, in the house holds.
One of the predominantly faced contaminations in the water is due to the mercury (Hg) and its related toxics being in high concentrations in the water. There are various acts and regulation that has been put in place in many countries to prevent any kind mercury level contamination in the water. Despite of all such precautionary measures, there is significant quantum of mercury toxic contamination in the drinking water suppliers in many regions. (B & Muchie M, 2010)
There are many techniques that are adapted in various regions for evading the water contamination due to mercury levels and more prevalent process in terms of avoiding contamination is in the levels of Coagulation or Filtration methods, or the Granular Activated Carbon usage towards removing the mercury toxic contamination in the water, or even the Lime softening methods depending upon the intensity and the level of contamination. Though majority of the processes give the results, still there are many shortcomings with the proposed methods and universally one of the best practices that have been providing best results is the process of Reverse Osmosis. (Govind & Madhuri S, 2014)
Reverse Osmosis has been considered to be one of the effective methods for ensuring the remedial solution for the water contamination. Based on the inputs from the industry and the experiments of the research studies, it is evident that the water pollution issue has been prevalent and reverse osmosis has been an effective solution that could result towards solution for clearing the water contamination. The major advantage of the reverse osmosis process it that it is a simple and effective solution and can be carried out at the household levels or even in terms of huge water treatment plants. Based on the need at the individual household levels the RO treatment setup can be established at a reasonable cost and when multi-layer reverse osmosis is conducted it could support in resolving the issue of water contamination and provide good water for consumption. (B & Muchie M, 2010)
Process of Reverse Osmosis
Ro is a membrane process which acts as a molecular filter which ensures to remove up to 99% of the dissolved minerals. When the process of RO is conducted the water is processed thru the membrane and the dissolved matters are left behind in the filter levels. It has been proved by experiments and the real time implementation that removal of ionic metals from solution has been more effective. The resulting concentrated by-product solutions turn up the extraction of metals more feasible in terms of quality extraction and filtration.
The crux in using the reverse osmosis is that though there is effectiveness in the solution, the procurement and the set-up of the membranes are relatively expensive and also the operating costs are marginally higher to other methods. The reason for the high costs is elevated pressures that have to be maintained under various operating conditions. However, one of the major advantages of having a good reverse osmosis is that it is resourceful in eliminating and filtering many kinds of heavy metals, and unlike the other traditional methods where for every metal there is a separate process that has to be adapted. (B & Muchie M, 2010)
According to the inputs from a research study that has provided the detailed overview of various kinds of techniques that could be adapted for remedial solution of removing the water contaminants, the reverse osmosis also has been explained in a detailed manner and as per the study, the report emphasizes that “Reverse osmosis had been applied in heavy metal removal both in small and large scales. For examples, in a study, when carrying out a pilot study conducted over a 30-day period on verification testing of a reverse osmosis membrane module, the total arsenic concentration in feed water which was averaged 60 ppb during the test period was observed to reduce to an average of 1 ppb in the treated water. (B & Muchie M, 2010)
In overall it could be stated that there are numerous methods, techniques and systems that are adapted for the process of eliminating the wastes and the removal of contaminants from the water and provide good drinking water sources for the society. One of the best method that could yield the maximum result in terms of both short scale and large scale operations of water treatment could be Reverse Osmosis. However in the case scenario where the lead ion contamination is observer high, in large scale operations AAM-PBR methods could be giving better results that could help in significant reduction in the levels of water contamination. Depending on the observations and the analysis of what kind of heavy metal contamination is existing in the water sources, effective models like precipitation, or RO methods or any other techniques that evolve over period could be adapted for better water management conditions.
Though there are many scientific methods that are helping in removing the heavy metal contamination in the water bodies, few of the factors that could provide adequate support is the conventional techniques that could prove more effective in terms of providing quality results in the removal of water contamination and also in the other way is very much cost effective.
According to a research material that has been published online, the researchers provide a contemporary method of water treatment which can be carried out at the household levels. Despite the fact that there are various conditions under which the process of water treatments are carried out investing significant process and cost, the effective solution that is offered by the researchers are the use of banana peel towards treating the water contamination and removal of many heavy metals from the polluted water. (Rowell, 2012)
It has been experimentally proved by the researchers that on simple terms of dropping the banana peel in to the gallons of water, the effectiveness of treating the contaminated water through potential techniques can be achieved in much simplified manner. However the efficacy of the solution has to be tested and accepted under various conditions; however the crux of the solution is that without much costs or exertive process, there is scope for treating the contaminated water to have better process and quality. (Rowell, 2012)
The research study states that “There have been numerous technologies developed to specifically remove metal toxicants from polluted waters- silica, alumina, activated carbon, and resins have all been proven successful… and expensive. While they perform in the high tech laboratories of developed countries, mass manufacturing and distribution of these products in developing nations are expensive and impractical. For rural and remote villages, activated carbon filters are just not a sustainable option for water purification. But, banana peels are” (Rowell, 2012)
This emphasizes the fact that though there are many scientific solutions that are available for the removal of water contamination and still there are many research studies that are carried out for identifying potential solutions, the organic approach like usage of banana peels if could serve the purpose, then it could be a major source and the remedy that could be used in terms of having a pollution free water source for drinking, which shall not cause any harm to the organs of the body.
Numerous research studies are carried out in terms of analysing the potential risk of water pollution, the reasons for water contamination and how effective methods, tools and practices could be adapted by the regulatory bodies and the household towards having remedial measures from the water contamination.
There are numerous studies that are providing various solutions right from small scale implementation to setting up huge plants that could server good water to the society. However the crux and the need of the hour is prevention rather than cure. More accountable studies have to take place in terms of identifying the sources of pollution, and the tools, techniques and practices that could be adapted to reduce the industrial waste and mitigating the risk of water getting polluted due to the mixing of heavy metals, and other kind of chemicals that could increase the complexities of water pollution and become a potential threat to the health of people and also many aqua living organisms. (Woodford., 2014)
Also it is very essential that an integrated and strategic approach is required towards reducing the impact of hazardous waste on the water and getting the water contaminated and not suitable for consumption. Various stakeholders like industries, water management bodies, and regulatory authorities, public should work the solution together and build an eco-system where the potential threat of water pollution is mitigated and the natural resources are safeguarded and utilized effectively. (B & Muchie M, 2010)
Water pollution has become one of the leading crisis management issues in many countries across the world. Despite the fact that the earth is comprised of abundant levels of water resources, as per the reports of WHO, still millions of people are not having access to quality water resources and are dependent on the contaminated water for their daily consumption. The water contamination is becoming a major challenge and industrial pollution is being one of the primary reasons for water pollution that is prevailing in the global scenario. Heavy metals like mercury, arsenic, lead and chromium cause potential harm to the human and aqua living, due to the high concentrations of the toxics. In this research the focus of the study has been on how mercury and lead can be potential harmful sources of water contamination and the implications of such contamination and the measures that could be used for treating the contaminated water. Potential solutions which are provided by earlier researches, like AAM-PBR model and the Iconic Liquids models has been discussed in this research report along with the contemporary methods like usage of banana peel for removal of heavy metals from the water contamination has been discussed to give an insight in to the effective treatment requirements for water pollution.
B, A. O., & Muchie M. (2010). Remediation of heavy metals in drinking water and wastewater treatment systems: Processes and applications. International Journal of the Physical Sciences, 1807-1817.
Brooks, R. M., Mozhgan Bahadory, Fernando Tovia, & Hossein Rostami. (2010). Removal of Lead from Contaminated Water. International Journal of Soil, Sediment and Water, 1-13.
Dungca, A., Andrea Hevey, & Rachel Patenaude. (n.d.). THE REMOVAL OF LEAD FROM WATER USING IONIC LIQUID. WORCESTER POLYTECHNIC INSTITUTE.
EPA. (n.d.). Drinking Water Contaminants- Mercury. APEC Water.
Govind, P., & Madhuri S. (2014). Heavy Metals Causing Toxicity in Animals and Fishes. Research Journal of Animal, Veterinary and Fishery Sciences, 17-23.
Järup, L. (2003). Impact of environmental pollution on health: Balancing risk. British Medical Bulletin, 176-182.
Rowell, C. (2012, Mar 19). Using banana peels to remove metals from polluted water: an aPEELING option – See more at: http://www.mindthesciencegap.org/2012/03/19/using-banana-peels-to-remove-metals-from-polluted-water-an-apeeling-option/#sthash.E4hix4yE.dpuf. Retrieved Dec 03, 2014, from Mind The Science Gap: http://www.mindthesciencegap.org/2012/03/19/using-banana-peels-to-remove-metals-from-polluted-water-an-apeeling-option/
Services, P. W. (n.d.). Heavy Metals Removal. Retrieved Dec 04, 2014, from .purewaterservices: http://www.purewaterservices.co.nz/contaminants/other-contaminants-issues/heavy-metals
Woodford., C. (2014, May 24). Water pollution: an introduction. Retrieved Dec 03, 2014, from Explain that Stuff .com: http://www.explainthatstuff.com/waterpollution.html
Wyk, C. v. (2012, July 16). HEAVY METAL POLLUTION OF WATER RESOURCES – CAUSES AND IMPACTS. Retrieved Dec 03, 2014, from Sustainable Productivity: http://sustainableproductivity.blogspot.in/2012/07/heavy-metal-pollution-of-water.html
Skype Id: hari.reddyc
Phone: +91-9502542081(IND) (Whats App, Viber)
phone: +1-2089086040 (US)